Category Archives: transliteracy

Transliteracy

Transliteracy has received much attention in the last few weeks.  Two posts by respect librarians spurred on a recent debate.  Meredith Farkas wrote a post entitled “Transliteracy from the perspective of an information literacy advocate“.  In this thoughtful and through-provoking post, Farkas compares transliteracy to the Library 2.0 movement.  She also compares transliteracy to information literacy and the instruction thereof.  In a comment reply, Farkas gets the the crux of her questions surrounding transliteracy, “what does a transliterate person look like?”

David Rothman wrote a post entitled “Commensurable Nonsense (Transliteracy)“.  Again transliteracy is compared to information literacy as well as computer literacy.  Moreover, a comparison is made to Library 2.0.  First, let me say that as someone who does not understand Library 2.0, I cannot really debate this issue.  I can say that Library 2.0 is a “concept” found in libraries only.  Transliteracy is a concept that is interdisciplinary by creation and design.

The difficulty in describing what a transliterate person looks like is the same difficulty we find in defining a literate person.  Is a literate person someone who can read and write, as Rothman suggests?  If so, at what level? Rothman, in his post, alludes to the fact that many students enter college while barely being able to “to string together a coherent written sentence”.  Are these students literate?  Having spent two semesters focused on literacy, reading and writing in my doctoral studies, we concluded that it is nearly impossible to define a literate person.

Furthermore, notions of literacy as the ability to read and write seem to be antiquated.  For example, the National Council of Teachers of English have expanded their definition of literacy to include “viewing and visually representing” information.  The International Reading Association expands their definition of literacy even further.  They include “one that encompasses the use of print, oral language, visual language, and the six interrelated language arts of reading, writing, speaking, listening, viewing, and visually representing.”  The lack of consensus surrounding the definition of literacy  does not devalue it as a concept.

A second issue that needs to be addressed is the comparison between transliteracy and information literacy.  Information literacy is defined as the abilities to “recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information.”  Information literacy seems concerned with the consumption of information, not the creation thereof.  Please don’t misunderstand, this is vitally important, but is very different from the concept of transliteracy.  I define transliteracy as “the ability to create, express, participate or interpret abstract representations of knowledge or thought, via whatever medium they prefer, so that one may more fully participate in the society, community, legacy or political system in which they reside.”  For me, transliteracy focuses equally on the notion of content consumption as well as content creation, and inasmuch, is vastly different than information literacy.

Why focus on literacies outside of traditional literacy?  There are many theorists who believe that the Gutenberg Parenthesis is coming to an end and that a Secondary Orality is emerging.   Why is this important.  The first question that one needs to ask is what is the purpose of literacy to begin with?  Is literacy an end in and of itself or a means to an end?  If it is a means to engage in society at large, then have communication technologies emerged that require a new or different way to communicate?  Can someone now fully function in society without the ability to read and write, such as the students Rothman mentions?  Moreover, is literacy a means to transmit knowledge and/or entertainment?  Again, have changes in communication technologies emerged that allow someone to consumer and create knowledge in forms other than print?

Secondary Orality, and the end of the Gutenberg Era, focus on a return to the oral tradition.  While nether idea argues that print is going away, nor that its importance is diminishing, they do hold that print as the primary vessel for imparting knowledge is no more.  A great example of this are TED talks.  While lectures have been around for almost all of human history, they have never been recorded, transcription aside.  The crux of their view is something like experiencing a Shakespearean play is different than reading the play.   Hearing oral stories is different than reading them.  Being able to tell stories is different than writing them down.  Libraries understand this greatly.  We rush to record oral accounts of WWII, because we recognize that the oral story telling is closer to the account than a written record.

Can you be a fully functional citizen today with just the ability to read and write?  If so, for how much longer can you be a fully functional citizen? Literacy is a fundamental and necessary ingredient for democracy.  Moreover, literacy helps one achieve critical awareness and freedom.  While literacy is “not the equivalent of emancipation, it is in a more limited but essential way the precondition for engaging in struggles around both relations of meaning and relations of power.  To be literate is not to be free, it is to be present and active in the struggle for reclaiming one’s voice, history, and future” (Freire & Macedo, 1987, p. 11).

Transliteracy is a concept that does not place emphasis on print, digital, multimodal, visual or any other literacy.  It holds all literacies as equals.  It does, however, give slight emphasis to the ability to create (write) over the ability to consume (read).  A transliterate person is someone who can engage in the flow of knowledge via any medium (whether print, oral, digital, or other) so that they may be a fully functional citizen and participant of society.  A transliterate person can create a storyboard for a video as well as a draft outline for a printed document.  A transliterate person can edit a video as well as edit a paper.  They understand the sentence structure regardless or oral or print constraints.  They can recognize that sentence structure has nothing to do with the printed word, but is actually rooted in oral tradition and orality.

Why is this important for libraries?  Because libraries are leading the charge in creating digital media labs and similar environments.  Just as libraries have focused on the abilities necessary for learning how to be literate, libraries now focus on the abilities to be transliterate.

Is it possible that translitearcy is a buzzword?  Sure!  Just as some consider information literacy as an ill-defined concept and buzzword.  Are buzzwords bad?  I used to sit in meetings with colleagues and we would count the number of times we heard collaboration, authentic, or participation.  Buzzwords are not bad in and of themselves.  And yes, Farkas is correct in her point that there is a vast graveyard of Library 2.0 failures.  Failing is not bad either, nor is trying.  The ventures came at little or no cost other than the labor and books purchased on social software.  Little is known about the success of any of these ventures, but it would not be foolish to believe that some where successful.  Perhaps in five, ten or twenty years there will be a graveyard of transliteracy attempts.  I do know the digital media labs in the area are highly used.  Life does lead to graveyards, fear of graveyards leads to a lack of life. I choose graveyards.

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Announcement: Libraries and Transliteracy

I have some awesome news.  The Information Activist will be a regular contributor to the awesome blog Libraries & Transliteracy. This group of awesome librarians support the role of libraries and librarians in terms of Transliteracy and 21st Century Skills.  I am passionate about the place of libraries in this new environment, and so excited to be part of this group.

Don’t worry though, I will still be here on a regular basis:)

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Digital Media Labs & Transliteracy

I am just fascinated, and thrilled, with digital media labs being installed in libraries.  The YOUmedia space at Chicago Public Library is a great example of this type of thinking.  I am working hard to get my library, Messenger Public Library, to build one.  More and more research lend credibility to these types of environments.

For me, the major reason to have this type of space is to allow citizens to express their voice through mediums appropriate to society.  Millions of people are rendered mute because they simply do not have access or the training to express their voice via sites like this, or on YouTube, or through some other means.

As schools continue to adopt transliteracy standards, such as those outline in the 21st Century Skills, libraries will need to be ready.  Moreover, students are beginning to push schools into create policies and spaces that foster these skills.  For example, the students at CPS recently asked the CEO of CPS to bring 21st century technology into schools.  How long until they call on us?  Wouldn’t it be great if we positioned ourselves to meet these needs?

I recently heard Siva Vaidhyanathan argue that companies like Google are successful because they fill a void created by failed public policy.  I hope that we don’t fail here.  People engaging information, creating information and learning to express their voice through various technologies has always been the role of libraries.

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Transliteracy

I am posting the conclusion to a paper I wrote on TransliteracyLibraries and Transliteracy have a love/hate relationship depending on where you stand.  The blog, linked above, offers some great information on transliteracy.

Transliteracy is an ecological, social and holistic examination of literacy.  Many of the other approaches to literacy focus on a single system, cognition, technology, education, etc.  Transliteracy recognizes that literacy is such a broad topic that for one to fully understand it they must look at all the systems involved.

As Gunther Kress writes,

It is no longer possible to think about literacy in isolation from a vast array of social, technological and economic factors.  Two distinct yet related factors deserve to be particularly highlighted.  These are, on the one hand, the broad move from the now centuries-old dominance of writing to the new dominance of images and, on the other hand, the move from the dominance of the medium of the book to the dominance of the medium of the screen. (2003, p.1)

While Kress may overly emphasize the dominance of the image, he is correct in his notion of no longer viewing literacy alone, but rather in its ecological system.

Transliteracy, as Jenkins describes below, does not focus so much on any specific medium, but rather on the content, or the convergence.

Convergence does not depend on any specific delivery mechanism.  Rather, convergence represents a paradigm shift – a move from medium-specific content toward a content that flows across multiple media channels, toward the increased interdependence of communication systems, toward multiple ways of accessing media content, and toward ever more complex relations between top-down corporate media and bottom-up participatory culture (Jenkins, 2006, p. 243).

While much of the focus on literacy deals with the reading aspect on the literacy spectrum, transliteracy focuses on the full spectrum of literacy within an ecological system.  Transliteracy recognizes that there is a purpose for literacy.  What good is it if someone is only capable of consuming knowledge?  “We should not assume that someone posses … literacy if they can consume but not express themselves” (Jenkins, 2006, p. 170).

Literacy is a fundamental and necessary ingredient for democracy.  Moreover, literacy helps one achieve critical awareness and freedom.  While literacy is “not the equivalent of emancipation, it is in a more limited but essential way the precondition for engaging in struggles around both relations of meaning and relations of power.  To be literate is not to be free, it is to be present and active in the struggle for reclaiming one’s voice, history, and future” (Freire & Macedo, 1987, p. 11).  Literacy is the road to freedom, and libraries line that road.


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